Weather, Climate, Season and their patterns in Bangladesh
Weather and Climate
Weather describes the state of atmospheric conditions at a particular place and time. It also explains how the air moves, which is called the wind, and describes anything it might be carrying, such as rain, snow or clouds. Thunder, lightning, rainbows, haze and other special events are all parts of weather.
Climate on the other hand, describes the average weather conditions in a certain place or during a certain season. Weather may change from day to day, but climate changes only over 30-40 years.
Many animals and plants need a certain kind of climate to survive. Dolphins and palm trees can live only in a warm climate, while polar bears and spruce trees need a cold climate.
The variation in weather conditions in Bangladesh can be easily observed. For instance, today it may be raining in Sylhet but the weather in Dhaka might be sunny. In this way, the variation in weather patterns with respect to location and time can be observed.
However, climate is the pattern of weather that we expect to see in a particular place. The climate of Bangladesh is mainly sub-tropical monsoon, i.e. warm and humid.
The earth’s position in relation to the sun is always changing. The earth spins around its axis, an imaginary line that runs between the north and south poles. One complete spin takes 24 hours, and at any moment, half of the earth is lit and warm (day), while the other half faces away from the sun (night). While it spins the earth also moves around the sun in a circle, called an orbit, and the orbit takes one year to complete. As the earth moves and spins it is tilted in one direction at an angle of 23 degrees. It stays tilted all the time as it orbits the sun, so that each area of earth receives different amounts of the sun’s energy at different times of the year. This is why we have seasons.
The Bengali calendar is divided into six seasons:
- Grishmo (summer)
- Borsha (rainy)
- Shorot (autumn)
- Hemanta (late autumn)
- Sheet (winter)
- Boshonto (spring)
Each season comprises of two months, however, some seasonal characteristics flow into other seasons.The prominent seasons differ in weather patterns:
- The calendar begins from Grishmo (Summer) which occurs in the month of April.
- Then comes Borsha (rainy) During this season it usually rains all day long and the rain acts as a blessing for the cultivation of crops.
- Soon comes the cold Sheetkal (Winter) that stretches from November to February, when the cold waves blow and the temperature is unusually low. It arrives right after the dry yet vibrant Shorot (Autumn) and Hemonto (late Autumn), then the year comes to an end with Sheetkal being followed by the beautiful Boshonto (Spring).
However, the seasons now overlap in such a way that the weather conditions overlap. Summer stretches for way too long whereas Winter remains short and the Monsoon strikes in late. On the contrary, 15 to 20 years back this was not the case. Bangladesh was proudly recognized as “The Country of Six Seasons” or “Shoro Ritur Desh” (Shoro: Six; Ritu: Season; Desh: Country). Sarcastically saying, thanks to global warming that we are experiencing prolonged seasons with extremities in forms of unusual rise in temperatures during summer, abnormal rainfall patterns during rainy season and freezing cold temperature during winter.
Some might argue that it is the earth’s position related to sun that is causing the abnormalities in the weather conditions within the seasons but this however has been proven as a misconception. The relationship of the Earth’s position and the sun results in change of seasons but never does it alter the extent to which seasons are likely to act.
The Articles have been constructed using the following sources:
- Weather, Climate, Season and their patterns in Bangladesh »
- Global Warming »
- What is Climate Change? Why is it changing? What are the factors? »
- What Are We Losing»